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|ploop, simfs, and disk space [message #45844]
||Fri, 06 April 2012 21:33
Registered: August 2005
Location: Moscow, Russia
I want to summarise some facts about simfs, ploop, and disk quota.|
== simfs case ==
If container is on simfs, it is using host file system, usually /vz.
Because many containers share one file system, per-container limits are
needed for both disk space used and disk i-nodes (roughly number of
files/directories) used. These two limits are called vzquota, and are
controlled by --diskspace and --diskinodes parameters for vzctl set command.
For both diskspace and diskinodes, there are two values -- soft limit
and hard limit, you can specify those using sss:hhh syntax. For example,
"vzctl set 333 --diskspace 10G:11G --save" command sets the soft disk
space limit to 10 GB and the hard disk space limit to 11G. The
difference between soft and hard limit is that the soft limit can be
temporary exceeded, while soft limit can not be exceeded. Here
"temporary" is defined by the third parameter, --quotatime, which sets
the time (in seconds) during which soft limit can be exceeded. This
value is otherwise known as the grace period. Once the grace period
has expired, the soft limit is enforced as a hard limit.
Example: admin sets disk limits in the following way:
vzctl set 333 --diskspace 10G:11G --diskinodes 1M:1.1M --quotatime
Now, a container root can use 10G of disk space, and have about 1
million files inside his CT. He can have 11G of disk space and about 1.1
million files, but for no longer than 1 hour. If he uses more than 10G
of disk space, during the first hour (and only during the first hour) he
will still be able to use 11th gigabyte.
This dimensional system of space, inodes, soft limits, hard limits and
grace period is nothing new, it's the same as traditional UNIX per-user
and per-group disk quotas. The only major difference is in this case
quotas are per-CT (per simfs mount point).
There is a --diskquota parameter (and DISK_QUOTA config file parameter)
which is used to enable/disable per-CT disk quotas. If you set
DISK_QUOTA=no in /etc/vz/vz.conf, no per-CT disk quotas will be
initialized. If you set DISK_QUOTA=no in CT configuration file (e.g.
/etc/vz/conf/333.conf), no disk quotas for this CT will be initialized.
NOTE that as with any other disk quota, if you will write to the file
system bypassing the quota (such as directly to VE_PRIVATE, e.g.
/vz/private/333), current quota usage values will be incorrect. In that
case, you need to stop the CT and run vzctl quotainit, to recalculate
quota usage. In some cases (such as after incorrect system shutdown
caused by power outage) quota files are marked dirty, and such
recalculation is happening automatically during CT start.
For the sake of completeness, there is vzctl quotaon and vzctl quotaoff
commands, but usually you don't have to use those two, because quotaon
is performed during vzctl mount (and vzctl start), and quotaoff is
performed during vzctl stop (and vzctl umount).
From inside the CT, utilities such as df are showing those quota limits
instead of actual available disk space and inodes (this is implemented
in the kernel by having a special version of statfs() syscall for simfs
which looks into vzquota). Sometimes it gets complicated, so if you see
something strange in df output, it is either incorrect quota values
(and you need to recalculate quota usage, see above), or perhaps the
filesystem disk space available is less than quota limits. For lots of
gory details on this stuff, please see
Also, you can check /proc/vz/vzquota to see for which containers quota
is on, as well as its current limits and usage values.
I am leaving more advanced topics such as using vzquota utility directly
as a (highly optional) exercise for (highly) advanced users.
== ploop case ==
In ploop case, there is an image file and the underlying file system, so
there is no shared file system and vzquota is naturally not required.
Therefore, options --diskquota (and DISK_QUOTA parameter), --diskinodes
and --quotatime are silently ignored.
Option --diskspace is not ignored, but instead of changing vzquota disk
space limit, it initiates the resize of the CT ploop image file and the
filesystem which resides on top of that image.
NOTE that image and file system resize, especially in case when the CT
is running (so-called online resize) is quite tricky, and in worst case
scenario can lead to image or filesystem damage that is beyond repair.
So exercise it a lot in testing environment, but do not abuse it in
NOTE that specifying two values for --diskspace in case of ploop makes
no sense. Only one value (hard limit) is used (and as with other
parameters, if you only specify one value, second one becomes equal to
the first one). So using --diskspace 1G:1.1G is the same as --diskspace
1.1G (or --diskspace 0:1.1G). Easy rule: do not use two numbers for
diskspace, just one.
* NOTE ploop is not yet ready for production, and will not be for at
least a few more months.
|Re: ploop, simfs, and disk space [message #45850 is a reply to message #45849]
||Sun, 08 April 2012 12:46
Registered: August 2005
Location: Moscow, Russia
On 04/08/2012 04:04 PM, Corin Langosch wrote:|
> Hi Kir,
> Am 06.04.2012 23:33, schrieb Kir Kolyshkin:
>> * NOTE ploop is not yet ready for production, and will not be for at
>> least a few more months.
> Now this really confuses/ worries me as the latest *stable* release has
> ploop support. If it's not stable (so not ready for production), why is
> it included in a *stable* release? And it's not even marked as
> experimental - not on the website nor in the man pages.
Sorry that I haven't stated it before, should've done it. Let me explain.
The RHEL6-based kernel is stable (or supposed to be stable).
The ploop feature is not, and it not supposed to be as of now. Call it
"beta" or "technology preview" or any other name suggesting it is not
ready for production systems yet.
This feature is orthogonal to other kernel functionality, so there is no
> How can I identify which kernel, tools and features are (supposed to be)
> stable and ready for production if not by the "Status" (stable,
> maintained) on the website/ man pages?
(1) Man pages are not supposed to mark feature status.
(2) I have put a big red warning on http://wiki.openvz.org/Ploop saying
this is not yet ready for production.
Current Time: Sat Nov 17 19:01:46 GMT 2018